Dispatches Tonight - Torture and Mobile Sterilisation Units in Tibet
Measures include monitoring menstrual cycles, forced abortions and sterilisation if women cannot afford a fine for having a second child.
One woman, a married farmer, described her agony at a forced sterilisation operation without anaesthetic.
She could not afford the fine, equivalent to £70, and was one of six in her village who went through the ordeal.
"I was forcibly taken away against my will. I was feeling sick and giddy and couldn't look up," she said.
"Apart from aspirin for the pain, there were no other drugs. I was so frightened, I can't even remember how I felt. Some people were even physically damaged by the operation. They have limps and have to drag their hips."
Unconfirmed reports also suggest mobile sterilisation units are inserting a new type of contraceptive coil into village women that cannot be removed by them.